Of the 99 occupations that the INE distinguishes in Spain, 83 have lost employees during the pandemic and only 16 have gained labor
The cinema is the activity most affected by the Covid: it has lost almost half of its workers
One of the cinemas of the Florida Cinemas in Vitoria-Gasteiz, on the day of its reopening after the stoppage caused by the coronavirus.
The pandemic continues to take a heavy toll on the labor market. According to Social Security data, excluding the 740,000 workers suspended from employment through ERTES, January accumulated 335,000 less annual average contributors while unemployment stood at almost four million. Of the 99 occupations in the National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE) of the INE, 83 have lost workers since the covid made its appearance and only 16 have increased their number as a result of their readjustment to the situation, or their untouchable character (public sector), accumulating 165,000 more average affiliates than there were before, but they have not prevented 431,604 net average employed persons from being lost since February (-2.40%).
Spain, the EU country where female unemployment has increased the most in 2020
Spending on unemployment benefits reached 2,653.1 million in October, 61.9% more
In relative terms, that is, as a percentage (it serves to make a more homogeneous comparison), the industry of cinematography, video, television programming as well as other related occupations (from film or series recordings to dubbing, acting, scriptwriters, technicians, specialists or rooms) has lost almost half of the affiliates it had before the covid. Thus, if in February 2020 it accumulated about 82,000 members between the general regime and the self-employed, now it only has 44,000. Therefore, it has decreased its numbers by almost 46%. It is followed by the accommodation service (hotels), which has reduced its employees by 23%, almost one in four.
For its part, the leather and footwear industry, also facing the drop in demand for its products, has almost 18% fewer workers. Employment in sports, recreational and entertainment activities (the bulk are gyms and sports halls) has fallen by 16% (one in six). The same figure has occurred in the group of the food and beverage service, that is, in bars and restaurants. Meanwhile, travel agencies and tour operators have shed 14.4% of their workers in this period and artistic activities and shows have reduced their workforce by another 13%.
Membership in cultural activities has decreased by 12% and the decrease in air transport has reached 10%. To a lesser extent, the 6% reduction in the number of employees in gambling and gambling activities as well as in associative activities stands out.
In absolute terms (numerical quantity), waiters are the activity most affected. According to CNAE figures, between February 2020 and January 2021, 207,003 affiliated waiters have volatilized, excluding ERTES. Thus, if at the beginning of the pandemic Social Security had 1,291,102 contributors in this group, now it only has 1,084,099. In second place are the almost 62,000 disappeared from the staff of accommodation services (hotels, hostels or rural houses). They are followed by the almost 41,000 fewer contributors from the retail trade (dependent and self-employed), or the almost 37,000 fewer from the cinema, as well as the 35,000 fewer from sports activities. These five groups add a decrease of almost 400,000 affiliates.
The 20,272 less from the construction of buildings also stand out; 18,408 less for “other professional services” (hairdressers for the most part); the almost 17,000 fewer members of the wholesale trade; 15,000 less from specialized construction activities; or the 11,000 less of the activity of sale or repair of cars and the almost 10,000 of the private education. Also striking is the drop of 9,000 employed in travel agencies and also in apartment rental activities (real estate).
Widespread job decline
By sectors, it is observed that the labor deterioration has been generalized. For example, the hotel industry (adding accommodation services and food and beverage services) have accumulated 268,929 workers (-17.2%) lost in this period. For its part, services directly associated with tourism also added 13,141 fewer affiliates (-12.7%) due to the decline in air and maritime transport or travel agencies and tour operators.
The sum of these activities shows a joint decrease of more than 282,000 workers. For its part, trade (wholesale and retail) has lost 57,643 employees (-2%). It is the activity with the highest number of employed persons. It has gone from 2,867,825 contributors to 2,819,182. Construction, and satellite sectors such as real estate, have shed more than 53,000 employees. More than half corresponds to the decrease in workers in the construction of buildings, specialized construction and civil engineering.
In addition, the textile and footwear industry accumulates a drop of 12,512 contributors in this period (-9.20%) since it has gone from having 138,290 affiliates to 125,778. Metallurgical manufacturing (metal and iron products) has lost 12,006 (-3.5%); the manufacture of motor vehicles has shed 8,474 workers (-4%); and food, despite being one of the essential sectors, has fallen from 7,655 (-1%). In addition, the wood industry loses 3% of its workforce; 3.2% decrease the number of affiliates of the sale and repair of cars (10,690 fewer people); and 4.9% remains the graphic arts industry.
The ravages of the pandemic are more evident in the activities and sectors linked to services and, in particular, in small-sized entities or the self-employed. For example, it is striking that 84% of the affiliates in the field are self-employed. Something similar occurs in activities such as computer repairmen (60% are self-employed) or 58% of those who carry out an artistic activity or in hairdressers.
Activities in which employment improves
In any case, employment has improved in these 11 months of the pandemic in 16 activities (one in six of the total), which have had to reinvent themselves, or which have benefited from their essential status or being among the most demanded in these moments. And also that, as happens in all crises, activities that are never affected by catharsis in the labor market, on the contrary, increase their workforce. This is the case of the Public Administrations (only general services) that accumulate 3% more members (31,000 more employees).
In relative terms (percentage between two variables), postal and postal activities are the ones that have added the most affiliates between February 2020 and January 2021. It has risen by almost 13%. It has gone from 85,797 to 96,721 contributors in this period. It is due to the parcel component, which has abounded in most commercial purchases (online in general) that have been made during all these months, especially in the harshest months of the pandemic. Healthcare activities, in particular public contracting and to a lesser extent private contracting, occupy the second place by increase in employment.
It rose by 87,100 to a total in January of 1,203,470. On the other hand, decontamination activities (wastewater) increased their employment by almost 4%, while in computer consulting, as a consequence of the increase in teleworking and public online operations, it grew by 3%. At the same time, and also associated with the confinement, the jobs in the services of the buildings of gardening activities increased 2.3%; 2.2% increased in telecommunications; 2.1% in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products; 2% veterinary activities by increasing pets; and, for example, 1.5% in the manufacture of computer products.
In absolute terms, health activity (public and private) registered an increase of 87,910 contributors; Public Administrations (general services) increased their workforce by almost 31,000, while services in buildings increased their membership by almost 14,000 and parcel delivery services by 10,000 and consulting and IT activities by 10,000. Also striking is the increase in more than 2,500 jobs in social activities without accommodation (not residences), or, for example, 1,326 in research and development and almost 1,000 in business management activities.